About 70 % of scientific publications are behind paywalls. In the last two years, this has dropped to about 30 % for publications specifically on COVID-19. This is a strong signal that science can and should be more open.
For a long time, there was no universally accepted definition of Open Science. With the adoption of the Recommendation in November 2021, 193 countries agreed to adhere to common Open Science standards, values and guiding principles.
Among other things, the Recommendation calls on member states to create regional and international funding mechanisms and establish the necessary infrastructure.
In addition, seven areas are to be prioritised:
- promoting a common understanding of open science and its associated benefits and challenges, as well as the diverse paths to open science;
- developing an enabling policy environment for open science;
- investing in infrastructure and services which contribute to open science;
- investing in training, education, digital literacy and capacity-building, to enable researchers and other stakeholders to participate in open science;
- fostering a culture of open science and aligning incentives for open science;
- promoting innovative approaches to open science at different stages of the scientific process; and
- promoting international and multistakeholder co-operation in the context of open science with a view to reducing digital, technological and knowledge gaps.